Тексты по химии для билингвальной работы по теме «Элементы подгруппы кислорода» (9 класс)
Тема урока: «Кислород»
Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen
Ozone (from the Greek ozon – “to smell”) is an allotropic modification of oxygen, O3.
The difference between ozone and oxygen is that the oxygen molecule contains two atoms of the element while the ozone molecule contains three.
Oxygen is a colourless gas, odourless. Ozone is an allotropic modification of oxygen. In normal conditions, ozone is a blue gas. Ozone boils at a higher temperature (–111,9 °C) than oxygen (−182,98 °C). Ozone has a sharp irritating odour and is very toxic. Liquid ozone is dark blue, in the solid state it is a dark violet crystal.
In natural conditions ozone is formed from oxygen during lightning discharges.
The molecule of O3 is unstable. Its oxidizing power is much higher than that of O2. That is why, ozone is used to purify drinking water and disinfect air.
The ozone belt plays a major role in protecting life on Earth.
ozone ['əuzəun] – озон
allotropic [͵æləʹtrɒpık] modification – аллотропная модификация
discharge ['dɪsʧɑ:ʤ] – разряд
oxidizing power – окислительная способность
ozone belt – озоновый слой
^ Тема урока: «Сера»
The combustion of sulfur had a role in Egyptian religious ceremonials as long as 4,000 years ago. “Fire and brimstone” references in the Bible are related to sulfur.
The beginnings of practical and industrial uses of sulfur are credited to the Egyptians, who used sulfur dioxide for bleaching cotton as early as 1600 bc. Roman civilizations used burned brimstone as a medicine and used "bricks" of sulfur as fumigants, bleaching agents, and incense in religious rites.
Greek mythology includes sulfur chemistry: Homer tells of Odysseus’ use of sulfur dioxide to fumigate a chamber in which he had slain his wife’s suitors.
The use of sulfur in explosives and fire displays dates to about 500 bc in China, and flame-producing agents used in warfare (Greek fire) were prepared with sulfur in the Middle Ages. Sulfur was regarded by the alchemists as the principle of combustibility.
Lavoisier recognized it as an element in 1777.
sulfur ['sʌlfə] – сера
brimstone ['brɪmstən] – уст. разг. сера
fire and brimstone – адские муки
to bleach [bli:ʧ] – отбеливать
fumigant [ʹfju:mıgənt] – фумигант (газообразное вещество, применяемое для дезинфекции)
incense ['ɪnsens] – ладан
Odysseus [ə'dɪsɪəs] – Одиссей
to fumigate ['fju:mɪgeɪt] –дезинфицировать, обеззараживать
chamber ['ʧeɪmbə] – комната, зал для приемов
to slay – убивать
suitor ['s(j)u:tə] – почитатель, поклонник
explosive [ɪk'spləusɪv] – взрывчатое вещество
warfare ['wɔ:fɛə] – война
^ Тема урока: «Сероводород. Сульфиды»
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
Hydrogen sulfide occurs naturally in crude petroleum, natural gas, volcanic gases, and hot springs. It can also result from bacterial breakdown of organic matter. It is also produced by human and animal wastes. Bacteria found in your mouth and gastrointestinal tract produce hydrogen sulfide from bacteria decomposing materials that contain vegetable or animal proteins. Hydrogen sulfide can also result from industrial activities, such as food processing, coke ovens, kraft paper mills, tanneries, and petroleum refineries.
Hydrogen sulfide is a flammable, colorless gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs, very toxic. People can smell it at low levels.
crude [kru:d] – необработанный
petroleum [pə'trəulɪəm] – нефть
hot spring – горячий минеральный источник
breakdown – распад
waste [weɪst] – физиол. выделения (организма)
gastrointestinal [,gæstrəuɪn'testɪnl] tract — желудочно-кишечный тракт
protein ['prəuti:n] – белок
coke oven – коксовая печь
kraft paper – прочная оберточная бумага, крафт-бумага
mill – фабрика
tannery ['tæn(ə)rɪ] – кожевенный завод
petroleum refinery – нефтеочистительный завод
flammable ['flæməbl] – огнеопасный; легковоспламеняющийся
rotten ['rɔt(ə)n] – прогнивший, тухлый
^ Тема урока: «Оксиды серы»
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses. The largest sources of sulfur (IV) oxide emissions are from fossil fuel combustion at power plants (73%) and other industrial facilities (20%). Smaller sources of SO2 emissions include industrial processes such as extracting metal from ore, and the burning of high sulfur containing fuels by locomotives, large ships, and non-road equipment.
Acid rain has been a problem for developed countries ever since the Industrial Revolution. The main causes of acid rain are the oxides of sulfur, which are produced when many metal ores are smelted. This is because the ores contain compounds of the metal with sulfur, called sulfides. When the metal is extracted sulfur dioxide and trioxide are given off as gases. These gases dissolve in water in the clouds, forming a solution of sulfuric acid. This acid rain causes many problems, from killing trees and fish to dissolving historic buildings.
emission [ɪ'mɪʃ(ə)n] – выделение, выброс
fossil ['fɔs(ə)l] fuel – ископаемое топливо
power plant ['pauə,plɑ:nt] – электростанция
to smelt metal — плавить металл
sulfide ['sʌlfaɪd] – сульфид
^ Тема урока: «Серная кислота»
Sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid in British English) is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4. It is soluble in water at all concentrations. Pure sulfuric acid is a viscid clear liquid, like oil, and this explains the old name of the acid ('oil of vitriol').
A major use of sulfuric acid in industry is in the manufacture of fertilizers. It is reacted with phosphate rocks to produce phosphoric acid, from which phosphate fertilizers are made. It is also reacted with ammonia to produce ammonium sulphate which is also an important fertilizer. It is also used in the manufacture of paints, plastics and detergents. Of course it is also the acid in the lead-acid batteries we use in our cars.
Sulfuric acid is one of the few chemicals whose formula is widely known by the lay public, at least in the United States – thanks to this jingle:
Little Johnny was a chemist
Little Johnny is no more
For what he thought was H2O
Was really H2SO4.
viscid ['vɪsɪd] – густой
oil of vitriol – купоросное масло
fertilizer ['fɜ:tɪlaɪzə] – удобрение
phosphate rock — фосфоритная мука
phosphoric acid [fɒs'fɒrɪk] – фосфорная кислота
phosphate ['fɒsfeɪt] – фосфат
ammonia [ə'məunɪə] – аммиак
sulphate ['sʌlfeɪt] – брит. (амер. sulfate) сульфат
detergent [dɪ'tɜ:ʤ(ə)nt] – очищающее, моющее средство